Natural Resources Exploitation
Exploitation of the Earth's physical and biological resources has always been a feature of human activities, but the pace and extent
of this exploitation have increased greatly in the last two centuries driven by and feeding technology advances, economic growth and
Many LMICs which have been mainly the source of raw materials such as minerals and primary agriculture products now wish to reap the
economic and developmental benefits of increasing production and adding value to the materials through processing. At the same
time, global concern for the environment requires that all countries conserve their natural resources, engage in sustainable
development and not follow pathways that may lead to pollution, exhaustion of resources and loss of biodiversity.
Some examples of key contributions of chemistry to these challenges include developing cleaner, more efficient, less
energy-intensive and less polluting extraction and refining methods for minerals; methods for the recycling of inorganic
and organic materials; and new substitute materials that can be produced more sustainably.
Chemists in many parts of the world work on the isolation, structure elucidation and bioassay of natural products. These studies
have made exceptionally valuable contributions to human health and wealth:
- Overall, about a third of all currently used medicines are derived from compounds first extracted from natural sources such
as plants, bacteria and fungi. These include antibiotics, anti-cancer agents, analgesics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants
and substances in many other therapeutic classes.
- An example of a product found through ‘chemical prospecting’ is ivermectin, a fungal metabolite of
highly complex structure which has been marketed for treatment of parasitic worm infections in animals and human
beings. As well as generating US$ 1 billion in sales, its donation by Merck to the World Health Organization laid
the basis for the treatment and prospective eradication of river blindness (onchocerciasis) in Africa.
- Products from Aloe plants have been very successfully commercialized to take advantage of their medicinal
- When a country links local scientific activity with local commercialization of the resulting products — pharmaceuticals,
agrochemicals, or personal care products — the country may gain revenue to benefit its people and the success of the
process can serve as an incentive for putting conservation measures in place.
One example of the power of bioprospecting is Madecassol®, a drug used for more than 25 years to
treat intense burns, leprous wounds, and inflamed ulcers. It was developed from chemicals produced by the plant
Centella asiatica in an effort involving scientists at the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research in Madagascar.
The institute has earned valuable royalties from the drug's sales.
Another example is
which was developed at the Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development. This plant
extract has shown success as a treatment for sickle-cell anemia, where it may help to reduce episodes of sickle cell
disease crisis associated with severe pain. The drug has been approved for sale in Nigeria, and its manufacturer is
currently seeking approval in the US and EU.
Taking An Ethical Approach To Biotic Exploration
The exploitation of biological resources has become an area of particular concern. Conservation of biodiversity is considered vital
for long-term human survival because plants, animals and bacteria can be the source of new nutrients, genes conferring resistance to
crop pests, drugs for combating diseases and much else. This implies that studies are undertaken globally to uncover these valuable
assets, but exploitation needs to conserve their stocks as well as ensuring appropriate rewards for their owners. Countries which
have some of the most valuable and diverse and least studied biological resources — often LMICs — have sometimes
experienced ‘biopiracy’ in which samples of plants or knowledge about their uses have been taken abroad and exploited
without benefit to the country of origin or to the local inhabitants whose indigenous knowledge has been the key.
Valuable lessons have been learned from the experience of LMICs that have developed ways to meet these challenges. One ground-
breaking example has been that of Costa Rica, a Central American country which covers 0.04% of the world's total land area, yet is
believed to harbour about 4-5% of the estimated terrestrial biodiversity of the Earth. In 1989, Costa Rica founded the Instituto
Nacional de Biodiversdad (INBio) to gather knowledge on the country's biological diversity, its conservation and its sustainable
use. In 1991, INBio instituted an innovative agreement with a multinational pharmaceutical company, in which Merck was granted the
right to evaluate the commercial prospects of up to 10,000 plant, insect, and microbial samples collected in Costa Rica. In return
for these ‘bioprospecting’ rights, Merck paid INBio US $1 million over two years, and provided equipment for processing
samples and scientific training. Merck also agreed to pay a royalty — to be shared equally by INBio and the Costa Rican
Ministry of Environment and Energy — on the profits of any future pharmaceutical product or agricultural compound that
isolated or developed from an INBio sample. Subsequently, INBio negotiated several further bioprospecting contracts involving other
partners than Merck, including Eli Lilly, with the result that income from INBio's bioprospecting activities rose to about US$1
million per year.
The Costa Rica example demonstrates the possibility of conducting research to identify new medicinal products from natural sources
in an LMIC, in a way that preserves property rights, generates a financial return and encourages capacity building.
Many of the lessons were taken forward in the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups Program, initiated in 1992 to make
multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional awards to foster work on the three interdependent issues of drug discovery, biodiversity
conservation, and sustainable economic growth.
IOCD's Work In Biotic Exploration
In collaboration with Thomas Eisner (known as the "father of chemical ecology"), in 1995 IOCD established a Working Group known as
the Biotic Exploration Fund (BEF), to facilitate and catalyse ethical bioprospecting worldwide. Initial funding to set up the BEF
came from the US National Academy of Sciences, the American Chemical Society, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation,
UNESCO and the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development. (For links, see the
The BEF has assisted several LMICs in Africa, Asia and Latin America to develop policies for ethical, sustainable bioprospecting,
helping establish the foundations for new products and processes that will contribute to better health and economic development.
Bioprospecting links laboratory work on biodiversity by a country's scientists with local enterprises, which bring to market
products based on the scientists' findings. At the same time, bioprospecting involves a commitment to conserving a region's
biodiversity to ensure its survival and usefulness for future generations.
to biotic exploration have included work in Latin America, Asia and Africa. These have been aimed at
stimulating interest in bioprospecting and facilitating engagement of the local scientists and policy makers. They have often
involved sustained engagement over several years to support national initiatives. Examples of IOCD action include:
In 1997, the Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology requested IOCD to assist them in building local capacity for
bioprospecting in Nepal. Assisted by a grant from the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development, an IOCD scientist
travelled to Nepal to join members of the Nepal Traditional Medicine Promotion Group (TMPG) in a joint
mission of several weeks.
- An initial workshop with the Traditional Medicine Promotion Group explained the process of drug discovery and
outlined the operations and policies for bioprospecting.
- Visits were also made to relevant research laboratories and local private pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other
manufacturing facilities based on biodiversity resources in Nepal;
- Interviews were conducted of government officials concerned with access to biodiversity resources, scientific
research and promotion of biotechnology business;
- Information was obtained about traditional healers in order to learn about their resources and determine their
- Discussions were held about follow-on and IOCD provided a small grant to the TMPG for implementation of local
action, with a view that TMPG could serve as a basic component of a long-term programme for developing the capacity
and infrastructure in Nepal for bioprospecting.
- South Africa:
In 1996 South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and IOCD scientists cooperated in organizing a
bioprospecting workshop with university researchers, traditional healers, and other organizations. Today, CSIR is pursuing a
robust bioprospecting programme in full compliance with the UN Convention on Biodiversity.
In 1998 IOCD cooperated with the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in Nairobi, Kenya, to
establish a bioprospecting programme that continues to expand and prosper. Follow-up since then with the Government of Kenya
has led to the establishment in 2011 of a national bioprospecting strategy supported by Sh10 billion funding.
- The strategy is spearheaded by the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife and Kenya Wildlife Service and will provide
structures and systems to effectively and efficiently manage and regulate bio-prospecting activities in Kenya. It
will seek to tap the huge market of bioprospecting and generate wealth and knowledge for the country. An estimated
80 per cent of Kenya's population depends on biodiversity. The strategy will be implemented through enhancing
institutional capacity and review of the statutory and regulatory framework for bioprospecting and also developing a
system of bioinformatics and benefit sharing. Other elements include enhancing information access and developing a
communication system as well as a financial and resource mobilisation mechanism for bioprospecting.
- The launch makes Kenya among the first countries in the world to have a bioprospecting roadmap after establishment
Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing.
- Kenya's Minister of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030, Hon. Wycliffe Oparanya said that
implementation of the strategy will contribute to the achievement of the Vision 2030 development blueprint, through
improved management of biodiversity that enhances the economic wellbeing of the Kenyan people. He stressed the need
for the country to have a common vision on biodiversity management. “Management of Kenya's biodiversity is
vested in various agencies which lead to overlaps and competition on limited resources. All these need to be
realigned with the new constitution to avoid duplication and overlaps while also taking into consideration the
emerging issues of global concern,” he added.
- The launch also saw an expert dialogue workshop for effective biodiversity laws that attract investments for
Launch of Kenya's new Bioprospecting Strategy
at the Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi on 3 November 2011
Left to right:
Mr. M.A. Wa Mwachai, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife; Hon. Mutula Kilonzo, Minister for Justice, National
Cohesion and Constitutional Affairs; Dr. John Kilama, IOCD; Mr. Julius Kipng'etich.
In 1998, noting the successful early progress of the Kenyan initiative, a group of scientists in Uganda contacted IOCD with
a request for assistance to establish bioprospecting in their country. IOCD began a long-term programme to facilitate this.
In April 2005, with IOCD cooperation, the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology convened the National
Conference on Bioprospecting, entitled “Bioprospecting for Economic Development.” Recommendations of this
conference called for establishment of the National Centre for Bioprospecting in Uganda. To facilitate passage of essential
legislation on biodiversity by the Uganda parliament, in March 2007 at the request of the Uganda Minister of Planning IOCD
convened a consultative briefing with members of Parliament, university vice chancellors, entrepreneurs and representatives
of indigenous peoples. In a further follow-up, IOCD has been assisting Ugandan policy makers in the development of draft
legislation on bioprospecting for parliamentary approval.
- Managing intellectual property (IP):
The capacity to identify, negotiate and manage IP is crucial to a country's interests if it is to
protect its natural resource, safeguard their use in ethical and sustainable ways and ensure a
return on their value. IOCD has responded to recent requests from scientists and policy makers in
East Africa with assistance in organizing training in IP. A planning meeting for IP training was
held at the Kenya Wildlife Service headquarters in 2014 and further work on the training project is
In promoting bioprospecting, IOCD strives to comply with the
UN Convention on Biological Diversity
Charles Weiss and Thomas Eisner,
both of whom helped to launch IOCD's BEF, discuss some of the challenges and useful strategies of bioprospecting in their article
"Partnerships for value-added through bioprospecting," Technology in Society
, 20, 481-498 (1998). For reprints, please
on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on
is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic
resources in a fair and equitable way, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant
technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding, thereby
contributing to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components. It was adopted by the Conference
of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at its tenth meeting on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan.
Kim Lewis and Fred Ausubel have published a detailed analysis of strategies for bioprospecting specifically aimed at developing
antibacterials: K Lewis & FM Ausubel, 'Prospects for plant-derived antibacterials', Nat Biotech 24
December 2006. The PDF is available
Jacques Gaillard and colleagues describe the work of the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research on page 170 of the
UNESCO Science Report 2005
IOCD's John Kilama has co-authored a review of the value of natural biological resources as a source of new medicines, in an
co-sponsored by the
UN Development Programme
UN Environment Programme, Secretariat of the Convention on Biodiversity
and World Conservation Union:
- D.J. Newman, J. Kilama, A. Bernstein, E Chivian, Medicines from Nature, in E. Chivian, A. Bernstein (Eds),
Sustaining Life: How Human Health Depends on Biodiversity, Oxford University Press, 2008, Chapter 4, 117-161.
Other useful literature on biodiversity and bioprospecting:
- Eisner, T. Chemical prospecting: A global imperative. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 1994, 138, 385-395.
- National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) of Costa Rica.
- Eberle, J. Assessing the Benefits of Bioprospecting in Latin America. IDRC Reports Online, 21 January 2000.
- Jenner, A. Experiences with bio-prospecting and access & benefit sharing. Presentation at the Geneva Pharma Forum, 6 May
- Weiss, C.; T. Eisner. Partnerships for value-added through bioprospecting. Technology in Society, 1998,
- International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program
- Rosenthal, J. Integrating Drug Discovery, Biodiversity Conservation, and Economic Development: Early Lessons from the
International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups. In F. Grifo. J. Rosenthal (Eds.). Biodiversity and Human Health. Island
Press, Washington DC, 1997, Chapter 13.